Friday, February 28, 2014

Why I Don't Buy 99 Percent of What the U.S. Media Says About the Ukraine

As the tensions ramp up in the Ukraine, and Kerry makes hollow threats warning the Russians "hands off" (as if the U.S. of A. wouldn't marshal  all its might if a rabble of Communist Cubans took over downtown Miami and its venerable courthouse) one has to wonder how much of the backstory we're really being told. How much do we REALLY know of the instigators in the Ukraine ? How much do we really know about the so -called "freedom fighters"? Do we know any more about them than the "liberators" we were going to back in Syria back in July - who turned out to be terrorists?

Let's observe that there's always  been a measure of hypocrisy but Official Washington used to at least pretend to stand for “democracy,” rather than taking such obvious pleasure in destabilizing elected governments, encouraging riots, overturning constitutional systems and then praising violent putsches. As blogger Robert Parry has astutely observed:

"But events in Ukraine and Venezuela suggest that the idea of respecting the results of elections and working within legal, albeit flawed, political systems is no longer in vogue, unless the “U.S. side” happens to win, of course. If the “U.S. side” loses, then it’s time for some “shock doctrine.” And, of course, the usual demonizing of the “enemy” leader."

Maybe it's because we've ignored - or the U.S. media has - how neocons are still buried in our national policy like worms in the core of an apple. Don't believed me? Then where is the mainstream press on the "NED"? The National Endowment for Democracy, which was a central part of Ronald Reagan’s propaganda war against the Soviet Union three decades ago. It has  since evolved into a $100 million U.S. government-financed slush fund that generally supports a neocon agenda often at cross-purposes with the Obama administration’s foreign policy.  As Robert Parry notes:

"NED is one reason why there is so much confusion about the administration’s policies toward attempted ousters of democratically elected leaders in Ukraine and Venezuela. Some of the non-government organizations (or NGOs) supporting these rebellions trace back to NED and its U.S. government money, even as Secretary of State John Kerry and other senior officials insist the U.S. is not behind these insurrections."

Maybe things are even more sinister than they appear, given NED emerged at around the same time as the Nazi-backed Republican Heritage Groups. All this is well documented  by Russ Bellant, in his book 'Old Nazis, The New Right and the Republican Party' ( South End Press, Boston, 1991, p. 77). Bellant painstakingly documents how Nazis, and former S.S. infiltrated the Republican Heritage Groups and Council from the time of Reagan's ascension in 1980. He provides actual letters written and received as well as how their agenda is spelled out. He also notes a key figure who had established connections many decades earlier, i.e.

"Philip Guarino helped establish the ethnic division of the GOP in 1952. He was vice-chair of the Republican Heritage Groups Council from 1971-75."

By April 8, 1980, Guarino "was a senior member of the Republican Party National Committee, which at the time was concentrating all its efforts on getting Ronald Reagan elected President." (Recall Reagan also gave a nod to these vermin when he visited the grave site of a Waffen S.S. in Bitburg, W. Germany. The PR at the time was that it was "an accident", but don't buy it for a second!) The "ethnic division of the GOP" refers to Ukrainian and Latvian assistants and associates, or members of the extension group affiliated with the German Waffen S.S. which had helped carry out pogroms during WWII- usually butchering Jews and communists in their own nations. (Recall, Hitler often conflated the Jews with Marxists, communists based on the fact Karl Marx was a Jew.)

It then may also be no coincidence that neo-Nazis have been observed amongst these proper "democracy" protestors in the Ukraine, overturning statues, harassing those who disagree with them and in general carrying on like rogues and thugs. But how much do you hear of that in the Western Press?  To make a long story short, part of the GOP agenda dating from this Nazi infiltration, evolved to overturning elected governments that didn't meet the Reagan- Far Right "smell tests". Two recent examples are Venezuela and the Ukraine.

Let's also note Bellant's claims re: associations, groups - apart from establishing direct ties of former S.S. affiliates to the GOP, were also well substantiated in the Newsweek article ('The Right Wing Web', February 22, 1999, p.34).  The reason for reinforcing Bellant's book is that the putative basis for widespread former Nazi use and recruitment (including in our intelligence agencies, e.g. CIA) would have been laid bare....but it seemed evident to me even then that the GOP congress wished to cover its party tracks and all possible links to Nazi interests

According to a Baltimore Sun article ('Government May Soon Open Files on Nazi War Criminals', Aug. 2, 1998, p. 20A):

"Under pressure from Congress, the Justice Department and other agencies may be forced to declassify tens of thousands of top-secret documents describing the U.S. intelligence community's dealings with Nazi war criminals in the Cold War years. Legislation to open most of those files has already passed the Senate and could come up for a vote in the House this week. Some historians suspect that the opened files could cause 'tremendous embarrassments' for the United States."

Less than one year later the GOP congress voted against passage, and that was it. No one has heard much about it since. Perhaps the GOP Neocons knew then, as they do now, they didn't want to let the "cat out of the bag" regarding the NED. Robert Parry again:

 "NED was founded in 1983 at the initiative of Cold War hardliners in the Reagan administration, including then-CIA Director William J. Casey. Essentially, NED took over what had been the domain of the CIA, i.e. funneling money to support foreign political movements that would take the U.S. side against the Soviet Union.

Though the Reagan administration’s defenders insist that this “democracy” project didn’t “report” to Casey, documents that have been declassified from the Reagan years show Casey as a principal instigator of this operation, which also sought to harness funding from right-wing billionaires and foundations to augment these activities."

Let's get something else clear:  Ukraine’s ousted President Viktor Yanukovych was surely no paragon of altruistic benevolence or a flawless leader, though it looks like there are few of those in Ukraine, a country essentially controlled by a collection of billionaire oligarchs who jockey for power and shift their allegiances among corrupt politicians. But Yanukovych was elected in what was generally regarded as a reasonably fair election in 2010. Indeed, some international observers called the election an important step toward establishing an orderly political process in Ukraine.

But Yanukovych sought to maintain cordial relations with neighboring Russia, which apparently rubbed American neocons the wrong way. O(fficial Washington’s still-influential neocons have been livid with Russia’s President Vladimir Putin because he cooperated with U.S. President Barack Obama in averting U.S. wars against Iran and Syria.)

In both cases, like they did with Bush and Iraq in 2003, the neocons thought they had maneuvered Obama into confrontations that could have advanced their long-term strategy of “regime change” across the Middle East, a process that started in 2003 with the U.S. invasion of Iraq but stalled with that disastrous war.

But the filth didn't succeed.

Many in the Ukraine and a dullard, incompetent U.S. media are still wondering why Viktor Yanukovych  turned to Russia instead of the EU. They were not alert to the fact the IMF and EU demanded substantial economic “reforms,” including an austerity plan that would have turned 90 percent of the Ukraine's people into street beggars.. Yanukovych  rightfully balked at the harsh terms and turned to Ukraine’s neighbor Russia, which was offering a $15 billion loan and was keeping Ukraine’s economy afloat with discounted natural gas.

Reasonable people can disagree about whether the EU was driving too hard a bargain or whether Ukraine should undertake such painful economic “reforms” – or how Yanukovych should have balanced the interests of his divided country, with the east dominated by ethnic Russians and the west leaning toward Europe. But protesters from the western Ukraine, including far-right nationalists and neo-Nazis sought to turn this policy dispute into a means for overthrowing the elected government. Police efforts to quell the disturbances turned violent, with the police not the only culprits. Police faced armed neo-Nazi storm troopers who attacked with firebombs and other weapons.

Though the U.S. news media did show scenes of these violent melees, the U.S. press almost universally blamed Yanukovych – and took almost gleeful pleasure as his elected government collapsed and was replaced by thuggish right-wing militias “guarding” government buildings.

With Yanukovych and many of his supporters fleeing for their lives, the opposition parties seized control of parliament and began passing draconian new laws often unanimously, as neo-Nazi thugs patrolled the scene. Amazingly, the U.S. news media treated all this as uplifting, a popular uprising against a tyrant, not a case of a coup government operating in collusion with violent extremists.

Is there a Nazi connection to the NED's objectives too? In all likelihood. Governments  that permitted NED to function have  often found themselves facing internal political pressures from NED-funded NGOs to shift those countries’ policies to the right by eliminating social programs deemed “socialistic” and hewing to “reform” demands from international bankers, which usually meant ceding some sovereignty to the IMF or other global institutions.

Ukraine and Venezuela are no exceptions. Sadly,  the momentum that this three-decade-old extreme Right “public diplomacy” campaign has achieved – both from NED and various neocons holding down key positions in Official Washington – pits this shadow foreign policy establishment against the President of the United States. Barack Obama may see cooperation with Vladimir Putin as crucial to resolving crises in Iran and Syria, but elements of Obama’s own administration and U.S.-financed outfits like NED are doing all they can to create crises for Putin. 

How or when will Obama flush the  god-damned Nazi-Neocons from his midst? We don't know because we don't even know if he's aware they're embedded.  We do know that this NED shadow structure, when working in concert with domestic opposition forces, had the capability to challenge the decisions of Yanukovych’s elected government, including the recent coup – spearheaded by violent neo-Nazis – that overthrew him. Presumably, NED wanted the “regime change” without the neo-Nazi element. But that armed force was necessary for the coup to oust Yanukovych and open the path for those IMF-demanded economic “reforms.”

And  while Yanukovych and his top aides were forced to flee for their lives, the opposition-controlled parliament then passed a series of draconian laws often unanimously, while U.S. neocons cheered and virtually no one in the U.S. press corps noted the undemocratic nature of what had just happened.

The Neoliberal U.S Press corps had shown themselves to be beyond pathetic, and even now are trying to hype up all sorts of alarms and fear  as Russia rightfully gathers its forces to protect its interests the same damned way the mighty U.S. would if Cuban Communists had taken over Miami.  None of these jerkoffs deserves a hearing, especially when they give so much space and credence to the NED mouthpieces.

Oh, and remember Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs Victoria Nuland, the imp that was caught out saying: "FUCK the EU!"?  (Since she's part of the Neocon-NED orbit and wanted its influence to prevail, not the EU's)

She is none other than the wife of prominent neocon Robert Kagan, and  reminded Ukrainian business leaders that, to help Ukraine achieve “its European aspirations, we have invested more than $5 billion.” She said the U.S. goal was to take “Ukraine into the future that it deserves,” meaning out of the Russian orbit and into a Western one.

Thankfully, the Russians will not allow that to occur! Neocons or no!  They will not tolerate a fascist neo-Nazi empire on their doorstep any more than the U.S. would a further communist incursion.

See also:

In order to topple Yanukovych, the US had to tacitly support fanatical groups of neo-Nazi thugs and anti-Semites. And, even though “Interim Ukrainian President Oleksander Tuchynov has pledged to do everything in his power to protect the country’s Jewish community”; reports on the ground are not so encouraging. Here’s an excerpt from a statement by Natalia Vitrenko, of The Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine that suggests the situation is much worse than what is being reported in the news:
Across the country… People are being beaten and stoned, while undesirable members of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine are subject to mass intimidation and local officials see their families and children targeted by death threats if they do not support the installation of this new political power. The new Ukrainian authorities are massively burning the offices of political parties they do not like, and have publicly announced the threat of criminal prosecution and prohibition of political parties and public organizations that do not share the ideology and goals of the new regime.” (“USA and EU Are Erecting a Nazi Regime on Ukrainian Territory”, Natalia Vitrenko)
Ukraine is gradually succumbing to the loving embrace of the New World Order where it will serve as another profit-generating cog in Wall Street’s wheel. That’s the theory, at least. It hasn’t occurred to the boneheads at the New York Times or Washington Post that Ukraine is rapidly descending into Mad Max-type anarchy which could spill over its borders into neighboring countries triggering violent conflagrations, social upheaval, regional instability or–god-help-us– WW3"

Check your facts and do your homework, people, before you back the U.S. Neocon Fascists!

Spooks Go Ape Shit and Scarf Up Over 1.8 million Webcam Images

NSA ragout 4
When does it end? Where does it end? Have the NSA and GCHQ spooks (in Britain)  nothing better to do than snoop on innocent citizens' and grab up their phone logs, email lists, and now Youtube webcam images? According to  documents provided by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, a sinister program called "Optic Nerve" began as a prototype in 2008 and was still active in 2012, according to an internal GCHQ wiki page accessed that year. "Optic Nerve" implemented by Britain's surveillance agency GCHQ, with aid from the US National Security Agency, intercepted and stored the webcam images of millions of internet users not suspected of wrongdoing, secret documents reveal.

Got a webcam operating? Then HEY! Maybe you are a terrorist! After all, making porno images now likely counts as "domestic terror" and make no mistake they are all being stored.  According to The Guardian which reported the latest outrage by the spooks:

"GCHQ files dating between 2008 and 2010 explicitly state that a surveillance program codenamed Optic Nerve collected still images of Yahoo webcam chats in bulk and saved them to agency databases, regardless of whether individual users were an intelligence target or not. In one six-month period in 2008 alone, the agency collected webcam imagery – including substantial quantities of sexually explicit communications – from more than 1.8 million Yahoo user accounts globally."

The  Guardian added that:

"Yahoo reacted furiously to the webcam interception when approached by the Guardian. The company denied any prior knowledge of the program, accusing the agencies of "a whole new level of violation of our users' privacy".

According to The Guardian again:

"GCHQ does not have the technical means to make sure no images of UK or US citizens are collected and stored by the system, and there are no restrictions under UK law to prevent Americans' images being accessed by British analysts without an individual warrant.

The documents also chronicle GCHQ's sustained struggle to keep the large store of sexually explicit imagery collected by Optic Nerve away from the eyes of its staff, though there is little discussion about the privacy implications of storing this material in the first place."

The Guardian goes on to note that  Optic Nerve is "eerily reminiscent of the telescreens evoked in George Orwell's 1984", and was used for experiments in automated facial recognition, to monitor GCHQ's existing targets, and to discover new targets of interest. Such searches "could be used to try to find terror suspects or criminals making use of multiple, anonymous user IDs."

We also learn the program  "saved one image every five minutes from the users' feeds, partly to comply with human rights legislation , and also to avoid overloading GCHQ's servers. The documents describe these users as "unselected" – intelligence agency parlance for bulk rather than targeted collection.

Another document likened the program's "bulk access to Yahoo webcam images/events" to a massive digital police mugbook of previously arrested individuals.

It noted:

"Face detection has the potential to aid selection of useful images for 'mugshots' or even for face recognition by assessing the angle of the face. The best images are ones where the person is facing the camera with their face upright."

Optic Nerve was based on collecting information from GCHQ's huge network of internet cable taps, which was then processed and fed into systems provided by the NSA. Webcam information was fed into NSA's XKeyscore search tool, and NSA research was used to build the tool which identified Yahoo's webcam traffic.

Bulk surveillance on Yahoo users was begun, the documents said, because "Yahoo webcam is known to be used by GCHQ targets".

Another aspect that ought to get U.S. citizens' attention is that unlike the NSA, GCHQ is not required by UK law to "minimize", or remove, domestic citizens' information from its databases. However, additional legal authorizations are required before analysts can search for the data of individuals likely to be in the British Isles at the time of the search.  There are no such legal safeguards for searches on people believed to be in the US or the other allied "Five Eyes" nations – Australia, New Zealand and Canada.

In other words, all the 'Five Eyes' nations are basically in a proto-fascist panoptycon with the spooks monitoring their moves 24/7.

The spooks are also evidently alarmed at the amount of nudity in these images. Quoting one GCHQ source in The Guardian:

"Unfortunately … it would appear that a surprising number of people use webcam conversations to show intimate parts of their body to the other person. Also, the fact that the Yahoo software allows more than one person to view a webcam stream without necessarily sending a reciprocal stream means that it appears sometimes to be used for broadcasting pornography."

See that, you "porno terrorists"?

The document estimates that between 3% and 11% of the Yahoo webcam imagery harvested by GCHQ contains "undesirable nudity".

A question that occurs is, if it is so "undesirable" why are the Spooks so entranced by it and grabbing 1.8 million images?

Be warned in advance, peoples!  The Spooks are everywhere and like "Big Brother" from 1984 they are watching you!

Where is  Emmanuel Goldstein when we need him?

Thursday, February 27, 2014

Kepler Finds 715 New Planets - Does It Mean A Greater Probability Of Life On Them? No

Planetary graphs data-near Earthlike planets
Two representations of 603 exoplanets around Sun-like stars found up to the end of 2013. The data are plotted with planet radius (R) vs. orbital period in days - P (a), and against stellar irradiation flux (b) (From Physics Today, January)

The news that the Kepler telescope has found 715 new planets is now making the general media rounds, but many outlets seemed to have jumped the gun and extrapolated from these a "higher possibility of life being found". This isn't true at all. As I noted in a previous blog post, one of the most critical first objectives  - to assess for an "Earth-like planet",  is to obtain the periodicity or the time it takes the planet to circle its Sun. This is based on the fact that with the period, one can determine a planet's distance, i.e. from Kepler's 3rd law, see e.g.

If then the period is too short,  a planet will be too close to its host star, never mind it may have the mass or radius of Earth. Then it can't really be called "Earth like" in the strict technical sense of actually being a place one could survive.  With those limitations in mind, Geoffrey Marcy of the University of California, Berkeley and Andrew Howard of University of Hawaii, last year reported an analysis of 603 planets (found via Kepler)  orbiting Sun-like stars, including with a few having periods longer than 300 days.

Bear in mind the Earth's orbital period is 365 days so any exoplanets with P > 300 days are of major interest since they could mark a genuine Earth-like planet, i.e. which could actually be colonized one day. This makes the Marcy-Howard research especially significant given they also corrected for observational biases and limitations, and restricted their searches to stars less than 3,000 light years away - with low photometric noise and Sun-like surface temperatures, or around 11,000 F.

But at the end of the analysis, a core of only one single planet of the 603 was adjudged to be in any way "livable". (Which still doesn't mean anything actually inhabits it)  This was identified within the small green inset box (from 10 plausible initial candidates) seen in the graph (b) at the right. (Plotting the radius vs. stellar irradiation flux.)  The candidate planet met the key criteria for in occurring in the vicinity of stellar flux  Fo = 1 and planetary radius R =1 (determining the acceleration of gravity g) .

 NASA on Wednesday announced the discovery of 715 new planets, but of these only four were designated as existing in any habitable zone.  The 715 planets were found to orbit 305 different stars, and were discovered by the Kepler space telescope using a new technique called "verification by multiplicity".  It relies in part on the logic of probability. Instead of searching blindly, the team focused on stars that the technique suggests are likely to have more than one planet in their orbit.

Let's examine briefly an assay of the planets thus far discovered. According to NASA, 95% of the planets discovered by Kepler are smaller than Neptune, which is four times as big as Earth. With such large radii, and likely accompanying density, none of them are plausible habitable worlds.

Meanwhile, one of the new planets is about twice the size of Earth and orbits a star half the size of Earth's sun in a 30-day cycle. This again eliminates it as being habitable based on the Kepler harmonic law. It would be too close to its parent star, hence too hot.  The other three planets in habitable zones also are all roughly twice the size of Earth, again likely making their gravity too great for any life to evolve.
Of course, more observations are needed, and planetary astronomers expect to find a higher percentage of new planets that could potentially have a life-supporting climate like Earth's.
But still, the best approach is not to get ahead of ourselves. While the more than 1,700 new planets discovered is exciting to be sure it doesn't mean that any of them harbor any life forms.  We have a plethora of planets, thanks to Kepler, but so far zero evidence for life on any of them.

Robert Samuelson Calls Out "Propaganda" - Is Blinded By His Own


Neolib hack Robert Samuelson is on his high horse again ('Make Jobs, Not Propaganda') this time calling out Obama's Affordable Care Act  for bamboozling people by not giving the lowdown on how many jobs would be "lost".

According to the nattering Neolib, a denizen of the WaPo:

"An administration serious about job creation has to sacrifice other priorities to attain it. This President Obama hasn't done.  The CBO estimates that the health insurance subsidies in the Affordable Care Act would discourage people from working, resulting in the loss of an equivalent 2.5 million full time workers by 2024."

But again, either Samuelson doesn't get it or doesn't want to. After all, Neoliberalism dictates that at every turn the market rules over worker security and welfare. Hence, a dedicated Neolib would be purblind to any advance that benefits workers, as opposed to sacrificing their interests to the maw of the market.

The point is that the ACA  changes  will enable workers to be freed from the yoke of jobs they detest - merely to keep health insurance. This has been a monkey on the back of most ordinary workers since health insurance was linked almost exclusively to having a job after World War II. No more. Now, tens of millions of people who currently have insurance through their employers will  have the option to quit their job and get insurance through the exchanges.

This is the purview of a truly FREE WORKER'S MARKET!  The worker now gets to make his calls, as opposed to being an economic slave for some goober boss to lord it over him, knowing the poor guy has little choice other than to take it or be without health insurance.  According to the New York Times (Feb. 23):

This is a phenomenon that economists call “job lock”: when people stay in jobs they dislike, or don’t want, solely to keep their health coverage. A Harvard Business School study in 2008 estimated that 11 million workers are affected by this dilemma. Other studies show that when people don’t have to worry about health insurance, they are up to 25 percent more likely to change jobs.

The freedom inherent in this truly free worker's market doesn't end there. Millions of older workers, for example, will finally be able to tell "Boss Man"  to get screwed and retire, having access to affordable health care without fear of financial ruin- or having to stay in a suck-ass job just to have insurance.  The unspoken bounty not mentioned at all by Samuelson is how this change will leave many job openings for younger workers - who up to now have been shut out, because the oldies were forced to work longer.....mostly just for health least until Medicare kicked in a age 65. Now, no more.

Of course, the typical Neolib hates this! He hates that a worker or non-rich person has any kind of freedom of choice outside what the coercive market dictates or allows.  In this case, he abhors that a worker can be Scot-free with no job obligations, and can still get insurance. To this manner of economic brigand, it amounts to "cheating".

Other benefits also accrue from a truly free worker's market:

- People will be able to switch jobs, from those that suck the life and energy from them to those that better suit their talents.

- Parents will be able to downsize their jobs on their terms to be able to spend more time with families. This will be especially true for many parents of young children who would rather work less to spend time with their kids.

- People with serious health conditions will be more  likely to cut back their hours or quit work altogether since they will no longer need to work at a job that provides health care insurance.

THIS is where the 2.5 million jobs (not necessarily workers)  Samuelson claims the CBO asserts will be "lost" by 2024, will go.  Yes, in a manner of speaking, they will be lost to the Neoliberal coercive jobs market, but the people - the workers - will gain greater job autonomy. They will have the job choice - or no choice- they've always cherished but which the Neoliberal market denied.

This was the basis for the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO) assessment that the ACA would reduce the supply of labor by 2 percent. CBO calculated that several million people would either cut back their work hours or leave the labor force altogether.

The other aspect the Neolib hates is that higher worker pay could result from the diminution in jobs.

While the CBO  report didn't specifically explore this issue, other things being equal, a reduction in the supply of labor would be expected to lead to a rise in its price. In other words, wages would rise. That would be good news for workers who've seen their wages stagnate since 1973.    The Neoliberal textbook story is that a rise in the supply of labor lowers wages, and this is exactly what happened. It happened for two main reasons: 1) steady reproductive rates that keep job production below population growth rates, and 2) the jobs- health insurance lock which forced more workers to stay in jobs than they otherwise would - artificially increasing the labor force beyond what it needed to be.
For all these reasons, Samuelson's challenge to Obama to "make jobs, not propaganda" rings hollow. Samuelson doesn't want Obama to "make jobs",  he wants the Prez to make jobs that conform to the dictates of the Neoliberal job market imperative!

Solutions to GRE Sample Physics Problems (6)

76.  By Ampere’s relation:  

B d s =  4pI/ c

Where I denotes the enclosed current.

\     B d s  = 0  and      ÷ B÷   = 0      Ans. (A)

77. From the same relation as in (76), we can determine:

2pr  ÷ B÷     =  4 pI/ c

Where r  is the distance from the center of the tube.  Then:

| B  |   =    2I/ r c     Ans.  (E)

78. By Gauss’ Law:   EA =  Q/  e o

Since E is const. within the capacitor then V= Ed

Then: V A/ d  =   Q/  e o

And: V =    Q d /  A e o

So the capacitance is: C = Q/ V =  Q/ [ Q d /  A e o]

=   A e o   / d            Ans.  (B)

79.A potential difference is established between the plates – hence assume a constant source of emf. Then from Kirchoff’s 2nd law:

e       =  iR  + Q [1 – exp (-t/ RC))/ C

The power is:  P =

e i=   i2R + iQ[[1 – exp (-t/ RC))/ C

Where i2R is the constant rate at which electrical energy is converted into heat energy ni the resistance.

Therefore, the instantaneous power output to the capacitor, is:

dW/ dt =  (iQ/C) [1 – exp (-t/ RC)]

Solve for the current:

i =  (e/ R) exp (-t/ RC)


dW/dt =  (e) exp (-t/ RC) Q  [1 – exp (-t/ RC)]/ RC ]

Therefore, on integrating:

W =  (e Q/ RC) { - RC  o ¥   exp (-t/ RC) [-dt/RC + RC/2]

x   o ¥   exp (-2t/ RC)(-2dt/ RC)}

Or: W = ½ e Q 2   =   Q 2 / 2C     


Ans.  (E)

80.  Let Q represent the total charge on one plate. Then the total force on the other plate is obtained from Coulomb’s law:

F =  s Q/ 2 e o   where s is the surface charge density, or

s = Q/ A

Then: F =  Q/ A  [Q/ 2 e o  ]  =    Q 2 /2A  e o 

But:  =   V A e o   / d  = Q   (from  # 78)

So: F =   {V A e o  / d }2  / 2A  e o 

=    e o   A [V2 / 2d 2 ]       Ans.  (D)


81. By the method of images we can consider there is a point charge (-q) at x = -a, y – z = 0.

F =  - q 2   / (2 a) 2  =    q 2  / 4 a 2      Ans.  (E)

82.  The potential energy is:

V =   ¥  a  (-  q 2   dx)/  4 x 2

V =    - q 2  / 4 a     Ans.  (E)

83. We can do a simple optical sketch for the object in relation to mirror surface, i.e.

Sketching the object at 4” from the mirror axis (below), and the focal point (focus) at 6” (since f = r/2 = 12”/ 2) we can easily see the magnification for an ‘object’ about 1.33” tall is 3x since the y dimension shown is 3x greater. 
Also by calculation, assume a 2" object:

f = r/ 2 = 12 in. / 2 = 6 in.

For an object with x =  2 “ :  

x/ 2”  =  y/ 6”   so that M = y/ x = 6”/ 2”  = 3x


Ans.  (C)

84. The optical path the light has to travel in water must be equal to the path it would travel in air.

n (H20)  d’  =  n (air) d

where d, d’ are the respective paths

We know: n(H20) = 4/3 and  n (air)  = 1.0  therefore:

4d’ / 3 =   6 in.   or d’  =   6 in./  (4/3) =    6 in (3/4) =  4.5 inches

Ans.  (B)

85. We use the lens maker’s formula:

n/ f =  (n’ – n) [1/ r1 = 1/r2]

In air: 

1/ f1 = (1.50 – 1.00)(1/ r1 – 1/r2)

In water: 1.33/ f2 =  (1.50 – 1.33) (1/r1 – 1/ r2)


1/f1 = 0.50 (1/ r1 – 1/ r2)

1.33/ f2 =  0.17 [1/r1 – 1/ r2]

Divide the top eqn. by the bottom eqn.:

f2/ (1.33 f1) = 0.50/ 0.17  so f2 = 3.91 f1      Ans.  (E)


86. The operation of a laser depends on filling a metastable energy level higher than the ground state, depleting the ground state. This inverts the population levels of the two states.     Ans.  (B)

87. Treat the system as a Carnot engine for which the efficiency:

h =   W / Q h

Where W is the mechanical energy (work)  produced and Q h is the heat removed from the high temperature reservoir. For the refrigerator, the coefficient of performance is the inverse of the efficiency so:

COP   =   1/ h =   Q h / W 

We have  Q h    = 2 400 calories and COP = 6  then solving for W:

W =    Q h / COP  =   2400 cal/ 6  = 400 cal

Ans.  (C)

88. If we compute the determinant for the matrix:

D =   0(0) -  0(0) + 3(0) = 0

 So the matrix has no inverse. Ans.  (E)

(I.e. statement 'E' is NOT true)
89. The positron and electron completely annihilate each other so by conservation of energy-momentum, spin, baryon and lepton numbers two photons will be produced.

Ans.  (C)

90. According to Kepler’s 3rd law of planetary motion the period of a planet varies directly as the cube of its  semi-major axis, a.  That is:

T2 ~   a3

Since the semi-major axis is equal to the mean distance R  from the Sun then T2  varies inversely as  the third root of the mean distance, or:     R1/3

Ans.  (E)